LIFE CYCLE


LIFE CYCLE
A bar mitzvah boy surrounded by family and friends carries the Torah Scroll as part of the Torah reading at the Western Wall, one of the favored sites in Israel to commemorate a boys Jewish coming of age. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem. A bar mitzvah boy surrounded by family and friends carries the Torah Scroll as part of the Torah reading at the Western Wall, one of the favored sites in Israel to commemorate a boy's Jewish coming of age. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.   FOR A JEW THE STAGES OF LIFE ARE ACCOMPANIED BY VARIOUS RITUALS AND CEREMONIES, FROM BIRTH THROUGH EDUCATION AND BAR/BAT MITZVAH TO MARRIAGE AND FAMILY TO DEATH. ITEMS MAY RELATE TO AN INDIVIDUAL, SUCH AS BIRTH AMULETS, TEFILLIN BAGS, AND DOWRIES, OR TO THE COMMUNITY, SUCH AS THE ḤEVRA KADDISHA (BURIAL SOCIETY) APPURTENANCES. THE LOCALE OF EACH COMMUNITY INFLUENCED THE MATERIALS AND STYLES REFLECTED IN THE VARIOUS OBJECTS AND EVENTS SHOWN HERE.   A tenth-century childrens alphabet primer from a Hebrew manuscript. Cambridge University Library, T-S K5.13. A tenth-century children's alphabet primer from a Hebrew manuscript. Cambridge University Library, T-S K5.13.     \<!   \> \!ethiopian boys and girls learn hebrew in a makeshift classroom in addis ababa. ricki rosencorbis saba. Ethiopian boys and girls learn Hebrew in a makeshift classroom in Addis Ababa. © Ricki Rosen/Corbis SABA.   Children studying Torah in a eder (elementary level Jewish class), end of 20th century, Jerusalem. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem., end of 20th century, Jerusalem. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.") Children studying Torah in a ḥeder (elementary level Jewish class), end of 20th century, Jerusalem. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.     The Jewish Wedding, 1861, by Moritz Daniel Oppenheim, (18001882), German painter. Oil on canvas, 37 27.5 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by David Harris., German painter. Oil on canvas, 37 27.5 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by David Harris.") The Jewish Wedding, 1861, by Moritz Daniel Oppenheim, (1800–1882), German painter. Oil on canvas, 37 × 27.5 cm. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by David Harris.     A bat mitzvah girl wearing a yarmulke and tallit (prayer shawl) reads the Torah. Israel imagesAlamy. reads the Torah. Israel imagesAlamy.") A bat mitzvah girl wearing a yarmulke and tallit (prayer shawl) reads the Torah. © Israel images/Alamy.   A man prays the kaddish (mourning prayer) at the Western Wall wearing a tallit (prayer shawl), and tefillin (phylacteries). at the Western Wall wearing a tallit (prayer shawl), and tefillin (phylacteries).") A man prays the kaddish (mourning prayer) at the Western Wall wearing a tallit (prayer shawl), and tefillin (phylacteries). Jewish people from around the world make pilgrimages to the Wall, especially during the festivals of Passover, Shavuot, and Sukkot. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.     Dowry of a Jewish bride, made from costly items and containing several sets of dresses, coats, underpants, scarves and ornate leather boots. Bukhara, Central Asia, 19th century. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Dowry of a Jewish bride, made from costly items and containing several sets of dresses, coats, underpants, scarves and ornate leather boots. Bukhara, Central Asia, 19th century. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by David Harris.     A rabbi holds up a couples ketubbah (marriage contract) during a wedding ceremony in the central square of the Jewish Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem, 1994. Bojan BreceljCorbis. during a wedding ceremony in the central square of the Jewish Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem, 1994. Bojan BreceljCorbis.") A rabbi holds up a couple's ketubbah (marriage contract) during a wedding ceremony in the central square of the Jewish Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem, 1994. © Bojan Brecelj/Corbis.   Wedding rings, Germany and Italy, 17th century. Engraved, filigree, and enameled gold. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by Avi Ganor. Wedding rings, Germany and Italy, 17th century. Engraved, filigree, and enameled gold. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by Avi Ganor.     Yemenite Jewish bride and groom in their traditional finery. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem. Yemenite Jewish bride and groom in their traditional finery. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.   Half Title Page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA Title Page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA SECOND EDITION VOLUME 4 BLU–C OF FRED SKOLNIK, Editor in Chief MICHAEL BERENBAUM, Executive Editor Copyright Page copyright page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition Fred Skolnik, Editor in Chief Michael Berenbaum, Executive Editor Shlomo S. (Yosh) Gafni, Editorial Project Manager Rachel Gilon, Editorial Project Planning and Control Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning Gordon Macomber, President Frank Menchaca, Senior Vice President and Publisher Jay Flynn, Publisher Hélène Potter, Publishing Director Keter Publishing House Yiphtach Dekel, Chief Executive Officer Peter Tomkins, Executive Project Director Complete staff listings appear in Volume 1 ©2007 Keter Publishing House Ltd. Gale, is a part of The Cengage Learning Inc. Cengage, Burst Logo and Macmillan Reference USA are trademarks and Gale is a registered trademark used herein under license. For more information, contact Macmillan Reference USA An imprint of Gale 27500 Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 Or you can visit our internet site at http://www.gale.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, web distribution, or information storage retrieval systems – without the written permission of the publisher. For permission to use material from this product, submit your request via Web at http://www.gale-edit.com/permissions, or you may download our Permissions Request form and submit your request by fax or mail to: Permissions Department <address> Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning 27500 Drake Road Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 </address> Permissions Hotline: (+1) 248-699-8006 or 800-877-4253 ext. 8006 Fax: (+1) 248-699-8074 or 800-762-4058 Since this page cannot legibly accommodate all copyright notices, the acknowledgments constitute an extension of the copyright notice. While every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the information presented in this publication, Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning does not guarantee the accuracy of the data contained herein. Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning accepts no payment for listing; and inclusion in the publication of any organization, agency, institution, publication, service, or individual does not imply endorsement of the editors or publisher. Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in future editions. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Encyclopaedia Judaica / Fred Skolnik, editor-in-chief; Michael Berenbaum, executive editor. — 2nd ed. v. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. Contents: v.1. Aa-Alp. ISBN 0-02-865928-7 (set hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865929-5 (vol. 1 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865930-9 (vol. 2 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865931-7 (vol. 3 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865932-5 (vol. 4 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865933-3 (vol. 5 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865934-1 (vol. 6 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865935-X (vol. 7 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865936-8 (vol. 8 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865937-6 (vol. 9 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865938-4 (vol. 10 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865939-2 (vol. 11 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865940-6 (vol. 12 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865941-4 (vol. 13 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865942-2 (vol. 14 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865943-0 (vol. 15: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865944-9 (vol. 16: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865945-7 (vol. 17: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865946-5 (vol. 18: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865948-1 (vol. 20: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865949-X (vol. 21: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22: alk. paper) 1\. Jews — Encyclopedias. I. Skolnik, Fred. II. Berenbaum, Michael, 1945- DS102.8.E496 2007 909′.04924 — dc22      2006020426 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-865928-2 (set) 978-0-02-865929-9 (vol. 1) 978-0-02-865930-5 (vol. 2) 978-0-02-865931-2 (vol. 3) 978-0-02-865932-9 (vol. 4) 978-0-02-865933-6 (vol. 5) 978-0-02-865934-3 (vol. 6) 978-0-02-865935-0 (vol. 7) 978-0-02-865936-7 (vol. 8) 978-0-02-865937-4 (vol. 9) 978-0-02-865938-1 (vol. 10) 978-0-02-865939-8 (vol. 11) 978-0-02-865940-4 (vol. 12) 978-0-02-865941-1 (vol. 13) 978-0-02-865942-8 (vol. 14) 978-0-02-865943-5 (vol. 15) 978-0-02-865944-2 (vol. 16) 978-0-02-865945-9 (vol. 17) 978-0-02-865946-6 (vol. 18) 978-0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19) 978-0-02-865948-0 (vol. 20) 978-0-02-865949-7 (vol. 21) 978-0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22) This title is also available as an e-book ISBN-10: 0-02-866097-8 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-866097-4 Contact your Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning representative for ordering information. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Entries BLU–COF 5 • Abbreviations GENERAL ABBREVIATIONS 787 ABBREVIATIONS USED IN RABBINICAL LITERATURE 788 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ABBREVIATIONS 794 • Transliteration Rules 807 Glossary 810 BLUESTONE, JOSEPH ISAAC BLUESTONE, JOSEPH ISAAC (1860–1934), medical doctor and leading Zionist. Bluestone immigrated to the United States from Kalvarija, Lithuania, at the age of 19. He was a descendant of Rabbi yom tov lipmann heller of Prague and Cracow, best known for his medieval commentary on the Mishnah (Tosefot Yom Tov). Bluestone's basic Jewish education was classically Lithuanian/talmudic. Bluestone failed in his only attempt at business and so enrolled in medical school at New York University. He earned his degree in 1890 and opened his private medical practice on Manhattan's Lower East Side. He was affiliated with Beth Israel Hospital and served on its staff. An ardent Zionist, and an American patriot, Bluestone supported settlement in Palestine and as early as 1882 urged the establishment of a Zionist society in New York. Within a year he was vice president of Hebra Hovovei Zion, urging economic, political, financial, and physical support of the Yishuv. In 1889, Bluestone became the editor of the first Zionist journal published in America, Schulamit. When the Federation of American Zionists was established in 1897, Bluestone joined its ranks, but was disillusioned when the organization ignored the Orthodox members of Ḥovevei Zion. To fill the needs of religious Zionists, he and Rabbi philip hillel klein established the Federation of Zionist Organizations in the United States, an umbrella for Ḥovevei Zion groups. In 1901, he established the United Zionists of America, which essentially competed with the established community's Federation of American Zionists. The Federation served the West European, assimilated Jewish community, while Bluestone's group was occupied mostly with Yiddish-speaking East. Europeans. It was only after judah magnes took over the leadership of the American Zionists that Bluestone agreed to support their work.   One of Bluestone's major roles was to serve as a delegate to several international Zionist Congresses, where he met with theodore herzl , max nordau , shmarya levin , and Rabbi jacob isaac reines . When the Mizrachi Organization of America was founded in 1912, Bluestone was one of its key leaders and served on the executive committee for many years. He edited its Hebrew-language newsletter Mizaracha, was a Hebrew poet in his own right, published in Ha-Maggid, Ha-Ivri, and Ha-Pisgah, and translated works from English and Yiddish into Hebrew. He was a friend of shalom aleichem , imber , and goldfaden , all outstanding cultural figures from the Lower East Side. Bluestone was survived by four sons (all doctors) and three daughters. His self-written epitaph reads: "Here lies one who found a refuge at last – a Hebrew." -BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. Sherman, Orthodox Judaism in America: A Biographical Dictionary and Sourcebook, (1996) 33–35; Letter to the Editor from David Bernard Ballin, in: The New York Times (Nov. 8, 1934), 22; Obituary, in: New York Times (Nov. 3, 1934); M. Feinstein, American Zionism 1881–1904 (1925), 20–21, 32–38, 126–27, 246–48; H. Grinstein: The Memoirs and Scrapbooks of the late Dr. Joseph Bluestone of New York City, publications of the American Jewish Historical Society 35 (1939), 53–64. (Jeanette Friedman (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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